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De ce Minecraft este mai mult decât un joc video

Creatorii jocului Minecraft au dezvăluit în această săptămână că jocul cu blocuri de construcție are 33 de milioane de utilizatori.Acest lucru poate deveni cu ușurință o obsesie.

Jocul este plasat într-o lume virtuală formată din cuburi de diferite materiale - rocă, nisip, lavă, obsidian și multe altele.Aproape toate acestea pot fi folosite ca blocuri de construcție, iar câteva pot fi rafinate în materii prime utilizabile (lemn, fier, diamant etc.).
Redarea jocului presupune supraviețuirea prin utilizarea blocurilor pentru a construi un adăpost (care poate fi primitive sau mai elaborat, atat cat va place) și transformând materiile prime și combinațiile acestora în elemente (săbii, armuri, arcuri) pentru a ucide mulți monștri ai jocului , schelete, zombie etc). De la un astfel de cadru mai putin complicat a crescut un fenomen de jocuri.Comunitatea de oameni implicați în acest joc este reprezentata de zeci de milioane.Mulți dintre acești fani sunt copii, în principal băieți, cu vârste cupr…
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Don’t Be Your Own Worst Enemy (Part Two) ~Self Assignments~

A number of physical exercises can help shift our unsettled emotional states to calmer, more relaxed feelings—as well as to actually alter to some degree the body’s physiological responses. For maximum effect, they should become part of your daily routine. Don’t wait until a crisis emerges and then plunge into them, looking for a quick fix, although two of them can also be resorted to when emotions are running hot.
They take only five or 10 minutes each—a small price to pay, considering the time you might spend on coffee breaks or watching TV. Because it releases endorphins, exercise has a potent effect on reducing the signs and symptoms of stress.
Also, it cheers you up; you feel (correctly) that you’re actively doing something constructive, instead of passively experiencing various sensations. This in itself imparts a sense of control over your body and, by extension, the situation that keyed the stress in the first place.
1. Diaphragmatic or “belly” breathing sounds peculiar at fi…

Don’t Be Your Own Worst Enemy (Part One)

Stressed-out feelings are very often stoked by the ABCDEs described in Chapter 2 and by self-sabotaging self-talk. It is very easy to catastrophize the situation, along the lines of “I’m going to have a nervous breakdown. It’s absolutely impossible for me to do this.” Off-kilter beliefs such as these are guaranteed to keep the vicious cycle of stress running at full throttle. It’s difficult—if not impossible—to address the true external cause of your stressful feelings without first getting them under control.
Can you strengthen your resilience to stress and actively increase what might be called your hardiness? Indeed you can. Stress tolerance can be learned (as we’ll demonstrate later on in this chapter).
Once learned, it offers relief and improved health in both the short and longer term. That, in turn, allows us to become more flexible and adaptive when further, more severe hardships come our way. The attempt to understand the relationship between negative events and our ability …

About Pseudologia fantastica

Pseudologues engage in a fascinating phenomenon in which they not only prevaricate but tell stories that have a slightly fantastic quality to them. The stories are not so fantastic that they immediately create suspicion, but they do have the quality of making an individual special or unique. For example, an pseudologue may talk about graduating from a prestigious university, of athletic exploits, of knowing important persons, or of having unusual adventures.

One patient, previously reported by me (Ford, 1973), told tales (which were originally believable) of being an official in the World Health Organization with involvement in rescuing orphaned children from war zone areas. She also talked of knowing a variety of nationally known people and receiving awards for her humanitarian efforts. In fact, she was a middle-class woman who had never been out of her neighborhood except to go to the hospital.

Persons with pseudologia fantastica, at best, have marginal social adjustment. They may …

Lessons Learnd From Other Studies Of Science

As the least developed study of science, psychology has much to learn from the more established metascientific disciplines of history, philosophy, and sociology of science. The most important lesson comes from knowing the general stages that any scientific discipline goes through in its path toward maturity. Guiding the discussion of the development of each study of science, I make use of but modify Nicholas Mullins’s stage model of theory or network development.

Mullins argued for four potentially overlapping stages of development in theories and/or scientific networks in sociology. I propose only three stages and apply them not just to one field (sociology), but to all of the metasciences (history, philosophy, sociology, and psychology).

In addition, I simplify the components of each stage and focus only on each stage’s intellectual leaders, social-organizational leaders, research-training centers, and intellectual successes. In stage, Isolation, scholars work on the same problem i…

The Reaction of Other Metasciences to the Psychology of Science

Historians of science traditionally have not been much concerned with the general psychological traits and motives involved in the history of science. Ever since Whewell, many historians have documented and described the major events and trends in the history of science, and some, of course, have documented the lives of particular scientists, delving into psychological forces.

But on the whole historians have not moved beyond narrative histories of individuals’ lives; they have generally avoided “psychologizing” about individual scientists or even samples of scientists. Yet psychological forces—concept development, motivation, ambition, creativity, imagination, and so on—are implicit in much of this history of science. Historians view these aspects at a cultural rather than an individual level. Moreover, as discussed above with Hull’s comments about philosophers, Sulloway has argued that historians often actively resist a fundamental tool in the psychologist’s arsenal, namely, hypoth…

Brief History of Metasciences

Philosophy of Science 
Although philosophy of knowledge (that is, epistemology) was a central theme in ancient Greek philosophy, the field of the philosophy of science is a much more recent development. Its origins are seen in three trends: classification of the sciences, methodology, and the philosophy of nature. The intellectual leaders, in the sense of writing the first books on the topic, were William Whewell in England and Auguste Comte in France.

 Whewell actually wrote two books on the philosophy of science and coined the terms “scientist” and “physicist” in the process.
He took a modified Kantian view that there are laws of nature independent of our understanding and that by our inductive intuitions, rather than raw empiricism, we can come to understand the laws of nature. John Stuart Mill developed his own positivist position in reaction to Whewell’s inductivist position. Indeed, the two major proponents of positivism were Comte and J. S. Mill.

Positivism holds that nature h…